Toxicology is the study of the harmful effects of toxins on living organisms. Butterflies, like other insects, can be affected by toxins in the environment, including pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals.

Pesticides are chemicals that are used to kill or control pests, such as insects, weeds, and fungi. Pesticides are commonly used in agriculture and other industries to protect crops and other plants from damage. However, pesticides can also have negative impacts on non-target species, including butterflies, if they are exposed to these chemicals.

The effects of pesticides on butterflies can vary depending on the type of pesticide, the amount of exposure, and the life stage of the butterfly. For example, some pesticides can be toxic to the larvae of butterflies, while others may affect the adult butterflies. In some cases, pesticides can cause direct mortality, while in other cases they may have sublethal effects, such as reduced growth or fertility.

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