The Polygonia c-album, also known as the Comma butterfly, is a butterfly species that is native to Europe, Asia, and North America. 

Here are some characteristics of the Polygonia c-album butterfly:

  • Physical characteristics: The Polygonia c-album is a small to medium-sized butterfly with a wingspan of 40 to 50 mm. The wings are typically orange or brown in color and have a distinctive “comma” shape on the hindwings, which gives the species its common name. The underside of the wings is typically mottled with brown and white, providing camouflage among leaves and branches.
  • Preferred habitat: The Polygonia c-album is found in a variety of habitats, including forests, fields, and gardens. It is particularly common in wooded areas and along streams and rivers.
  • Temperature and humidity: The Polygonia c-album is most active in warm, humid conditions. It prefers temperatures ranging from 20-30°C and relative humidity levels of around 70%.
  • Host plants: The Polygonia c-album lays its eggs on a variety of host plants, including nettles (Urtica dioica), elms (Ulmus spp.), and willows (Salix spp.).
  • Nektar plants: The Polygonia c-album feeds on the nectar of a variety of flowering plants, including thistles, clovers, and dandelions.

Life cycle: The life cycle of the Polygonia c-album consists of four stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis), and adult butterfly. At a constant temperature of 24°C, the duration of each stage is as follows:

Egg: The eggs of the Polygonia c-album hatch after about 7-10 days.

Larva (caterpillar): The larval stage lasts for about 3-4 weeks. The caterpillars of the Polygonia c-album typically molt (shed their skin) 2-3 times as they grow.

Pupa (chrysalis): The pupal stage lasts for about 2-3 weeks. The pupa of the Polygonia c-album is typically green or brown in color and is well-camouflaged among leaves and plants.

Adult butterfly: The adult butterfly stage lasts for about 2-4 weeks.

Overwintering: The Polygonia c-album overwinters as a pupa, typically emerging as an adult butterfly in the spring. In colder climates, the Polygonia c-album may also overwinter as an adult, seeking shelter in hollow trees or other protected areas.

Egg-laying: The Polygonia c-album lays its eggs singly on the underside of host plant leaves.

To breed Polygonia c-album butterflies at home, you will need to provide the following:

  • A suitable habitat: Create a space that is warm, sunny, and humid. The habitat should have a variety of host plants for the Polygonia c-album to lay its eggs on, as well as nectar plants for the adult butterflies to feed on.
  • Host plants: Provide a variety of host plants for the Polygonia c-album to lay its eggs on, such as nettles, elms, and willows.
  • Nektar plants: Plant a variety of flowering plants that will provide nectar for the adult butterflies to feed on, such as thistles, clovers, and dandelions.
  • Temperature and humidity: Keep the habitat warm and humid by providing a heat source and using a humidifier.
  • Breeding containers: Set up breeding containers for the caterpillars and pupae, such as small plastic containers or mesh cages.
  • Monitoring and care: Monitor the development of the eggs, caterpillars, pupae, and adult butterflies and provide proper care as needed. This may include providing fresh host plants for the caterpillars to feed on, maintaining the temperature and humidity of the habitat, and releasing the adult butterflies when they are ready.

By providing a suitable habitat and proper care, you can successfully breed Polygonia c-album butterflies at home. It is important to note that breeding butterflies requires a significant amount of time, effort, and attention to detail, and it is not a task that is suitable for everyone. However, for those who are dedicated and passionate about butterflies, breeding them can be a rewarding and educational experience.

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